Sunday, November 07, 2004

Tutorial 12

1. What is identity theft? How can one protect against it?
The short answer is that identity theft is a crime. Identity theft and identity fraud are terms used to refer to all types of crime in which someone wrongfully obtains and uses another person's personal data in some way that involves fraud or deception, typically for economic gain. These Web pages are intended to explain why you need to take precautions to protect yourself from identity theft.
Unlike your fingerprints, which are unique to you and cannot be given to someone else for their use, your personal data ­ especially your Social Security number, your bank account or credit card number, your telephone calling card number, and other valuable identifying data ­ can be used, if they fall into the wrong hands, to personally profit at your expense. In the United States and Canada, for example, many people have reported that unauthorized persons have taken funds out of their bank or financial accounts, or, in the worst cases, taken over their identities altogether, running up vast debts and committing crimes while using the victims's names. In many cases, a victim's losses may include not only out-of-pocket financial losses, but substantial additional financial costs associated with trying to restore his reputation in the community and correcting erroneous information for which the criminal is responsible.

To reduce or minimize the risk of becoming a victim of identity theft or fraud, there are some basic steps you can take.
- Be stingy about giving out your personal information to others unless you have a reason to trust them
- Check your financial information regularly, and look for what should be there and what shouldn't
- Ask periodically for a copy of your credit report.
- Maintain careful records of your banking and financial accounts.

2. Explain NGN & discuss how it will improve internet communication and business.
NGNThe next-generation network seamlessly blends the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and the public switched data network (PSDN), creating a single multiservice network. Rather than large, centralized, proprietary switch infrastructures, this next-generation architecture pushes central-office (CO) functionality to the edge of the network. The result is a distributed network infrastructure that leverages new, open technologies to reduce the cost of market entry dramatically, increase flexibility, and accommodate both circuit-switched voice and packet-switched data. Set standards for future networks.


Sunday, October 31, 2004

Tutorial 8 & 9

Tutorial 8 – Technology of Secure Internet TradingReview Chapter 8 and prepare written responses to Questions 1 and 5 (p266)
Q1. Do some research on the use and current status of digital certificates. Do you agree or disagree with Schneier’s statement that “Digital Certificated provide no actual security for electronic commerce; it’s a complete sham”. Provide reasons for your response.
I do not agree that digital certificates is a complete sham as it does provide some sort of security to your personal information by ensuring that users are who they claim themselves to be. It is very important to authenticate the party in which you transmit or receive information. Although it is not 100% secure, but digital cert. does offer another level of authentication by verifying owners/receivers' public keys.
However, one problem that might be of concern is whether ot not all digital certificate are issued to identified parties. By this i mean, as long as all parties who signed up for a digital cert. are recgonisable, then authentication can be achieve. But according to Jason Coombs (security coordinator at Forensics.org), many of the digital cert. have flaws and further, digital cert. have be assigned anonymously to parties. This means that the identity of these holders can not be verify, which overwrites the process of having a digital cert where initial purpose was to verify the identity of the sender/receiver.

Tutorial 9 –
Developing a security policy for electronic CommerceReview the Technical Insite – Security begins with Policy (p285) and prepare written responses to Questions 1 to 4 (p286)
Q1. List several security problems caused from the inside of an organisation.
- Staffs of a bank accessing customer's accounts and transfering funds into his/her own account.
- Individual employees sell customers details such as addr, emails, ph. no and etc to external parties for marketing or any other purposes.
- Employees review company's login and password to external parties
Q2. What issues should be considered when making a security policy?
- It should cover the coming 5 years and be compiles by a senior executive at director level with responsibility for security.
- It has to be relevant to the business.
- Staff must be aware of the security policy.
- It should define which employees are allowed into specific categories of networks, access to applications such as financial forecasts and strategic plans.
- It should be easy for the staff to use and should not hinder their work.
Q3 What security concerns does growing popularity of rented applications present?
The company renting the application should make sure that the supplier renting out the applications can also provide the necessary level of security to accomany them and be sure that the supplier knows what their security responsibilities are.
Q4 How would an organisation pursue an integrated approach to corporate security?
Security is not the responsibility of an individual. It should be done by everyone in the organisation to make it effective. Therefore, organisations need to educate their staffs across the enterprise. Also, the security policy and procedures need to be set up so they are naturally easy to use (it should be user friendly).


Tutorial 11

Chapter 11: End of Chapter Questions: Review Chapter 11. Research and prepare written responses to Questions 1, 2 & 3
1. Why is the business component in e-commerce more significant than the technology it uses? Below are some of the reasons behind the importance of a business strategy.
- business need to plan, be dynamic, learn, grow, change to meet new challenges, improve.
- Strategy focuses the challenges of change, enable framework for sustained profitable growth.
It is essential that the core business activities of a company is clearly recognised so that any introduction of e-commerce and the technologies to enable it will focus on that corporate-level strategy. This will enable the business to gain a competitive advantage from adopting e-commerce in the first place by translating the strategy into operation and making them work.
Without a clear understanding of the focus of the business, without an ability to assess relative comteitiveness and without a clear set of applications at the operational end of the business, any attempt at adoption or later management of an e-business strategy would be futile.


How can any business effictively manage the complexities of technology and yet ensure it is well integrated within the business?
Purchasing technology components is a major investment for business, so careful evaluation of alternatives must remain an integral part of that process.
The strategy that has been determined by the business will frame all decisions about the components needed to make the technology work for that business. The requirements of the type of e-commerce to be undertaken must drive the decisions about what hardware, software and OS the business will choose to use and install.
This will mean significant decisions about the size and type of servers, about the type of links that will be needed within the organisation's network, what areas the network needs to cover, the operation of that network, types of routers, location of firewalls, cabling routes and types of cables.
In addition, the business has to decide what OS is most suitable. This is difficult for business managers today, since they have to choose between the more established UNIX and NT systems and the emerging Linux systems, for example. These decisions should be guided almost entirely by the requirements of the organisation. Choosing what operating system to use for business to business e-commerce is a different proposition that for an e-shop where the operations involved are less complicated.


3. Read Hartman and Sifonis (2000), chapter 3 & 9. Why do the authors suggest that a company like Cisco or Fruit of the Loom can be so sucessful at e-commerce?
Cisco implements new technologies and provides extensions of products and services to create a competitive advantage and increase their market share in the industry. An example is listed below:
"The signs of churn come as Cisco is banking on VoIP to fuel growth. Having built its business in the deep end of the network--selling routers and switches that make data networks such as the Internet and corporate intranets hum--the company is increasingly turning to higher-end services. " -- http://news.zdnet.com/2100-1009_22-5077726.html

Fruit of the Loom, Inc., owner of one of America's most recognized basic family apparel brands and a leading supplier of basics to the promotional marketplace, recently announced that is has teamed up with three-time NASCAR Winston Cup race winner Robby Gordon to compete in the NASCAR Busch Series in 2004. Further detail can be found on the following site:
http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CXP/is_1_8/ai_111748049
By doing so, creates further branding promotion for Fruit of the Loom and also reach out to the millions of NASCAR fans and their families.

Monday, October 25, 2004

Tutorial 10

Tutorial 10 – The impact of law and ethics on trading using electronic commerce (p324)
If you were in the process of establishing a commercial web site in Australia/ New Zealand:
Q1. What issues would you address in order to safeguard your operation from any legal disputes?


Hyper-link policies can be placed at the bottom of a site or a page can be assigned to inform of the terms and policies of the site - www.visittnt.com/Policy/policy.html


Q3. Would you need to investigate the bona fides of linked site (s) if you provided hypertext links to other web sites? Could you protect yourself from legal disputes arising from users who gained access to the linked site through your own? If so, how?

Exit notices - if a visitor clicks on a link, an exit notice informs the visitor that the linked content is not within the Web site sponsor's control. Disclaimers - prominent disclaimer use precludes a visitor from reasonably relying on linked content. Disclaimers can be placed on sections of a site that the user would need to agree upon before entry to the site is allowed.Monitor third party content - a Web site sponsor regularly monitors linked third party content to ensure that it's not misleading or inappropriate.

http://realcorporatelawyer.com/faqs/hyperlinks.html

Monday, October 11, 2004

Tutorial 6 & 7

Tutorial 6

End of Chapter 6: questions 3 and 4.
3. Prepare a report on content management issues.
Content management system provide an infrustructure for creating and maintaining web site assets, including text contect, images, sound files and application components.

4. What is meant by personalisation and why is it important?
The act of recognising a customer, subscriber or visitor as an individual and modifying actions based upon information known about this customer.


Tutorial 7 - EPS
Discussion Question no. 5 (page 239)
Prepare a report on smart cards.
Smart cards are really microcomputers that rely on another medium or reader to supply the power source to make them work. Smart cards have a small chip embedded, usually in a plastic card. This chip acts like a microcomputer with a typical input/output device, a microprocessor and Rom and Ram memory. Smart cards or SVCs can store everything found in a wallet or purse. They operate mostly by transfering data or value from the card to a business system, usually without verification, which makes them different from online payment systems.
Privacy issues: As smart cards can store anything from university transcripts, personal records, medical information, hospital files, social security information, employment records. Privacy can become an issue. If someone has the ability to obtain a reader, they unauthorise access this information from unsuspecting people. Security of information will be affected and need to be tightened.
Anonymity:
Technology that protects and enhances privacy for smart card users:

Monday, September 13, 2004

Tutorial 5

1. Investigate the latest progress in the XML standards race. Write a report on new developments and state your opinion on whether ebXML will emerge as the recognised standard or whether a new standard is likely to emerge.

Ebxml
Enables enterprises of any size and in any geographical location to conduct business over the internet.
- conduct trading relationships
- communicate data in common terms
- define and register business processes

Using a standard modular suite of specification to exchange business messages.

Legal xml
legal xml brings legal techical experts together to create standards for the electronic exchange of data.


XBRL support
-the publication
- exchange
- analysis
of the complex financial information in corproate business reports over the internet.

...provides..
- a common platform for critical business reporting processes
- improves the reliability and ease of communicating financial data among users internal and external to reporting enterprises.


2. Write a report on XML/EDI outlining the advantages and disadvantages of the technology.

XML/EDI - advantage/disadvantage
-working groups visit www.xmledigroup.org (go to "six pack") and possibly other websites

Advantages
-Low cost of entry
-lower cost of programming
-standard newtwk protocols can be used
-leverages existing EDI systems-Supports repositories for XML schema
-Allow for batch style exchnage of doc.
-Not a "Scrap & replace" solution-Oppotunities for small and mid-sized businesses
-XML is proven technology, that's here to stay

disadvantages
- increased bandwidth requirements
- internet may be less secure than x.400 set of standards. Also there is no guarantee as to the route a message will take to reach it's destination
- internet does not guarantee delivery of message and email does not mecessarily have an acknowledgement
- Use of the Internet may mean using an ISP who may or may not be accountable for message delivery
- XML/EDI documents will always be larger than traditional EDI documents.

assignment note

about standard.
information from website
plagerism software will be used.

Monday, September 06, 2004

Tutorial 4

1. Read the case study “Virtual vineyards taps into real-time online wine sales” on page 144.
a)Advantages of outsourcing the hosting of an e-Commerce site.
- Do not need to hire technical people to consistently host.
- Do not need to purchase resources or servers.
- Do not need to maintain network infrastructure.
- Have the latest technologies provided by outsource company.
- Faster, efficient, saves time of human resources to concerntrate on what they do best. Outsource company specialise in the creation of e-commerce site.
- Risk of the site and problems are handled by the outsourced company.

Disadvantages of outsourcing the hosting of an e-Commerce site.
-
Unoriginal. Template similar to other companies using the same outsource company.
- Costly service.
- Lack of control and flexibility of site and layout.

b) Visit the websites of IBM, Oracle and Cisco; investigate their e-business strategies and prepare a short report on the advice they offer e-commerce companies. Each of these vendors has an approach to eBusiness and a software suite of some type. Start by looking at the following sites. http://www.oracle.com/applications/ http://business.cisco.com/prod/tree.taf%3Fasset_id=44745&public_view=true&kbns=1.html (just look for eCommerce off www.cisco.com )

Advice offer e-commerce companies and software suite
IBM: Middleware solutions on demand: Respond with speed to industry mandates and critical business transformation needs in your industry. IBM provides...
Item Management
Customer Management
Consumer Information Management
Brand Management
Risk and Compliance
Cisco: E-commerce initiatives can deliver reduced costs, increased revenue, and operational efficiencies for businesses seeking an advantage in today’s competitive economic environment.
Benefits: E-commerce solutions deliver a wide range of benefits to businesses of all sizes:
- Enhanced revenue: E-commerce enables you to diversify your revenue streams to include new Web-based products and services. These additional sources of revenue may include advertising fees from ads on your online pages and/or partnership revenues from new alliances.
- Expanded markets: E-commerce can enable you to sell your products and services—and extend your name and brand awareness—beyond your current market at a lower cost than other traditional alternatives, such as building new stores or launching ad campaigns.
- Access to customer information: E-commerce gives you important information about your customers' purchasing behavior. You can use this data to create and retain strong relationships with your customers, resulting in a key competitive advantage—increased customer loyalty.
- Reduced costs: E-commerce expands your sales efforts and streamlines the flow of information among your company's departments. This functionality can enable you to increase the effectiveness and productivity of sales representatives and support personnel.
Specific solutions include:
- Intranets and portals for e-learning
- In-store Web-enabled devices, or high-tech kiosks, which can provide additional points of contact with customers, as well as enhanced employee education and partner-site traffic
- The Cisco IP/TV Solution (Internet Protocol Television, which provides TV-quality video online)
- Wireless point-of-sale and consumer applications
- Networked communication with supply-chain partners
Oracle:Oracle E-Business Suite is the industry's only complete and integrated set of enterprise applications, working together seamlessly to streamline every area of your business—from sales, service, and marketing, through financials and human resources, to supply chain and manufacturing. Oracle E-Business Suite is your fastest path to high-quality enterprise intelligence, bringing your company a true 360-degree view of your finances, your customers, and your supply chains, so you can make faster, better decisions and grow profitability in a competitive marketplace.

c) Do a search on ZDNet’s Internet X-Ray which is mentioned in this article. Write a short report on its usefulness as an interactive web tool.
Internet X-ray is a flash-based interactive way of viewing the data and technology processes of a company. Use the links below to see how X-Ray has been used to diagrammatically articulate the system architecture.
Visit this link and then click on “How it Works: ZDNet’s Internet X-Ray” on the right hand side. It gives a great view of the overall system in Macromedia Flash. http://techupdate.zdnet.com/techupdate/stories/main/0,14179,2789355,00.html

Where technology meants business needs. This includes:
Wired & Wireless Hardware Upgrades Software Infrastructure Security Web Technology IT Management

2. e-Business Forum
Visit the following website and analyse Australia’s position in e-business readiness as according to IBM. What was Australia’s position last year and how is it performing in the Asia –Pacific region? How has Australia’s Telecommunication industry positioned Australia globally? Find out who the Australian telecommunication regulators are and what role does it play in the e-commerce sector.
http://www.ebusinessforum.com/

E-commerce in Australia is highly developed and expanding rapidly. B2B and B2C consumer dealings are gaining wider acceptance, though they still account for a minor proportion of commercial activity
Forms of e-commerceElectronic commerce in Australia is highly developed and rapidly expanding. Business-to-business and business-to-consumer dealings, though still accounting for a minor proportion of commercial activity, are gaining wide acceptance.
Major US e-commerce firms have formed alliances with local companies. Amazon.com has entered into an alliance with F2 Investments, the Internet arm of the Fairfax Group, a major newspaper and business information publisher, and Microsoft has joined with Nine/ACP, a leading television broadcaster and magazine publisher. Major bricks-and-mortar retail groups have established Internet arms, and pure Internet retailers are proliferating.
The dominant players in online share trading are Comsec (Commonwealth Bank's online securities dealership), E*trade and TD Waterhouse. Charles Schwab Australia, the local arm of US broker Charles Schwab, closed its business in January 2002 and transferred its customers' accounts to TD Waterhouse. All the major banks offer Internet banking to business and personal customers, and they charge far lower fees for online transactions than for more traditional transactions. In March 2001, 2.25m Australians--27% of all adults connected to the Internet--were registered Internet banking users, according to the National Office for the Information Economy (NOIE).
The Interactive Gambling Act 2001, which came into effect in August 2001, makes it an offence to provide interactive gambling services to a customer physically present in Australia. This offence applies to all such service providers, whether based in Australia or offshore, whether Australian or foreign owned. The offence carries a maximum penalty of A$220,000 a day for individuals and A$1.1m a day for corporate bodies. However, legal commentators suggest that from a practical perspective, foreign interactive gambling providers are likely to be prosecuted only if they have a connection to Australia. Providers will have a defence if they can show they have exercised reasonable diligence in ensuring that Australian customers are prevented from using their services. The elements of such a defence could include whether prospective customers were informed about the prohibition, and whether customers were required to enter into contracts containing an express provision that they were not to use the service if physically present in Australia. The regime does not place any obligation on Internet service providers to filter or to block prohibited interactive gambling sites. But for gambling service providers located outside Australia, it requires ISPs to make relevant user-based filters available to their customers.
The Communications Law Centre, a non-profit research, policy and educational organisation specialising in media, communications and online law, publishes up-to-date guides to the law relating to e-commerce in Australia.
Growth of e-commerceA study by the National Office for the Information Economy (NOIE) released in April 2002 showed that 67% of households owned or leased a personal computer and 52% had Internet access. Of those aged 16 and older who had Internet access, 14% had shopped online in the six months to September 2001. The study, "State of Play", estimated business-to-consumer commerce as a percentage of GDP in 2001 as 0.17%, compared with the world's leader, the United States, with 0.7%. It estimated business-to-business commerce at 1.1% of GDP in 2001, compared with the US figure of 3%. At the beginning of 2001, Australia had 36 secure servers per 100,000 persons aged 16 years and older; the US had 49 secure servers per 100,000 persons in the same age group.
The government has implemented an accreditation programme called Gatekeeper, under which it gives official recognition to commercial organisations as registration and certification authorities, enabling them to provide the full range of digital certificate services to customers to use in their dealings with government. A number of organisations have achieved Gatekeeper accreditation: security specialist Baltimore Technology of Ireland (through its affiliate Certificates Australia), Australia Post, the Australian Taxation Office, Health eSignature Authority, Telstra, eSign Australia and PricewaterhouseCoopers (beTRUSTed). Telstra, eSign and PWC's beTRUSTed are accredited to issue Australian Business Number-Digital Signature Certificates (ABN-DSCs), which incorporate the Australian Business Numbers (ABNs) that companies must use in their dealings with the government. Moreover, federal government agencies recognise the ABN-DSCs issued under a co-operative project by Australia's four biggest banks, enabling a business to use a single digital certificate to conduct online transactions with banks, trading partners and government agencies. The banks' system is designed to be inter-operable with an international electronic payments programme organised by the world's major banks, under the title Identrus.
TelecommunicationsTelecommunications infrastructure is reliable and of high quality. The market was fully liberalised in 1997, allowing an unlimited number of carriers and service providers to enter the market. The National Bandwidth Inquiry, which issued a report in April 2000, found that there was and would continue to be considerable spare bandwidth in the backbone network. The heaviest use of bandwidth occurred within small cities (average population 48,000), where 7.8% of total capacity was being used. The capacity-utilisation rate between major cities was far lower, with only 0.72% of bandwidth between Sydney and Melbourne being used. The enquiry found that Australian prices would probably fall in all areas during 2000-04, with price declines of 30-50% per year expected on the more competitive and popular routes. Australia's telecommunications sector is undergoing rapid growth (over 10% per year over the past five years) and substantial change. Until the early 1990s Telstra--then a wholly government-owned business--was the sole supplier of telephone services in Australia. However, a second network was established by a privately owned telecommunications company, Optus Communications. A majority stake in Optus was subsequently acquired by the UK-based Cable & Wireless, which in 2001 sold the company to Singapore Telecommunications.
Since mid-1997 other telecoms firms have also been free to offer their services in the Australian market. Most of these have concentrated on international calls and mobile telecoms services. There have been protracted disagreements between Telstra and other telecoms firms, primarily Optus, over charges for access to Telstra's local call network and telephone number portability.

Monday, August 23, 2004

Tutorial 3

Page 112 of the textbook. Question 1 & 5:

www.utoronto.ca/webdocs/CGI/cgi1.html
http://developer.netscape.com/support/faqs/champions/nsapi.html
www.turbodb.de/en/support/isapi.html


Question 1:
Do a search on "web servers" and find out which web servers support CGI, NSAPI and ISAPI.

The purpose of a Web Server is to generate a web page (html) that is displayed in a regular web browser.
A CGI Web Server is an *.exe file - ISAPI and NSAPI Web Servers are *.dll files.
*.dll Web Servers are better (faster and more efficient) for high volume sites, but they are very difficult to debug because the main Web Server (IIS, Netscape, and the like .. but not Apache) must be shut down each time a new *.dll is compiled. As a result, it is usually easier to create a CGI server first and convert it to an *.dll latter.
NSAPI - Netscape
ISAPI - Microsoft

Question 5:
List as many alternatives for the development of server-side processing as you can and discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of each.

Active Server Pages (ASP) - Server-side equivalent of VBScript. [-] Only used on Microsoft. [+] about to receive data from browser via POST and GET (session variables).
Coldfusion - [+] Easy to link webpages to standard DBs. Available for Win and Solaris based servers. Operates as a system service, meaning that it runs as a background process, hence no delay while it loads. [-] Not usable on MACs and Linux.
PHP - Made to be embedded into html code. [+] Freely available open-source, cross platform product.
Java - Developed by Sun Microsystems. [+] powerful and multi-platform [-] Very complicated to learn.

Monday, August 16, 2004

Tutorial hand-in's...

to: sojen@it.uts.edu.au
subject: [00059168] Siew Ling Tan: Internet Commerce [Mon 6pm] 31749
Message: Advise the location of this site.

Monday, August 09, 2004

Tutorial 2

The issue of interactivity was a significant issue in many of the B2C e-commerce models. Do some research on the web to find out current Internet technologies that improve interactivity of the web by providing more user-friendly features.
What are some of your experiences of this?

Positive experience with interactivity on Business 2 Consumer websites:
o securing places at events via online purchase via shopping cart created by php, sql databases and dynamic HTML.
o Initial view of professionalism of the company when flash used to highlight sites.
o Attention grasping and stirs curiosity of viewers to want to know more about the company.
o Some interactivity may provide information via video captions or scrolling words to get their message through quickly and efficiently.
o Consistent updates of designs create periodical attraction. Photoshop maybe used to edit new pictures before placing onsite.

Negative experience:
o Long loading time from large program downloads. Applets is an example. Tendency of losing interest quickly if nothing is showing on the site. In turn, consumers tend to go to quicker loading sites instead.
o Greater download traffic. For clients paying by MB or limited RAM will not like to waste them on sites which take up plenty of space.
o Spam.

Methods of providing interactivity:
Animation/Cartoon - Animations or cartoons created especially for the web.
Art - Traditional and electronic art and performance.
Classic - Sites launched before January 1, 2003.
Content/E-zine - Web-based periodicals (content updated regularly).
Developer's Resource - Places to go for information, tools and advice to drive the net forward.
Educational Resource - Places to learn on the web.
Experimental - The most cutting-edge sites out there. Destinations that are pushing the envelope and challenging our perceptions of the web.
Film/Film Industry - Web destinations for the filmmaker, filmgoer and film fan.
Gaming - Places to play and discuss games and online diversions.
Green/Non-Profit - Sites that are working to make the world a better place.
Humor/Satire - The funniest sites on the web.
Music Industry - Record label, musical equipment, instruction and artist support sites.
Musical Artist/Band - Band and musician sites.
Personal - Portfolios and websites of people living their lives online.
Services - Sites for the online consumer.
Streaming - Sites that deliver audio and video content.
Weblog - Like this.
Weird/Extreme - The strange side of the web.

Tools Used to create Interactivity:
Graphic design software, ie Photoshop.
Flash multimedia to create games.
Java to create shopping carts.
PHP to create sessions.

http://www.sxsw.com/interactive/web-awards

Sunday, August 08, 2004

Tutorial 1

1. e-Business:
Business run via electronic media. For example, internet and email.

2. Broadband:
Permanent connection to the internet via a cable through the phone socket. 256kbps+.
Audio, video, data definitions signals.

3. DSL
Digital Subscriber Line is an always on internet connection that normally terminates in a socket on your wall, ie phone socket. High-bandwidth Internet connection utilizing ordinary copper telephone lines. Depending on the location, DSL modems can train anywhere from 1.5 Mbps to 4.0 Mbps downstream, and 128 Kbps to 1.0 Mbps upstream. There are various other DSL technologies available, some training as fast as 7.0 Mbps and upwards.
(ADSL - Asynchronise DSL)

4. NGN
The next-generation network seamlessly blends the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and the public switched data network (PSDN), creating a single multiservice network. Rather than large, centralized, proprietary switch infrastructures, this next-generation architecture pushes central-office (CO) functionality to the edge of the network. The result is a distributed network infrastructure that leverages new, open technologies to reduce the cost of market entry dramatically, increase flexibility, and accommodate both circuit-switched voice and packet-switched data.
Set standards for future networks.

5. ENUM:
ENUM is an IETF standard (RFC 2916) for mapping the public telephone number address space into the Domain Name System (DNS). In the iLabs, we use ENUM to centralize our call routing information in a standards based format.
Most people think of as telephone numbers as 11-digit sequences that follow this pattern: +1 702 555-1212. These telephone numbers are part of a global numbering plan specified by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) in Recommendation E.164. ENUM specifies how to use DNS to locate services associated with E.164 addresses. Not all telephone numbers are complete E.164 addresses, but for simplicity's sake, we'll use both terms interchangeably in this paper. While ENUM specifies methods for locating many different type of services, such as those provided by mail or Web servers, in the iLabs, we are mainly concerned with using ENUM for IP telephony, and specifically the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).
Protocal to use phone numbers to transfer into the internet.

6. BlueTooth:
Bluetooth technology was intended to hasten the convergence of voice and data to handheld devices, such as cellular telephones and portable computers. Through the efforts of its developers and the members of the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), it is now emerging
with features and applications that not only remain true to its original intent, but also provide
for broader uses of its technology.
Wireless protocal using radio waves.